Technology alone is not enough
Many studies reinforce that technology alone cannot achieve learning outcomes: ‘the tool provides the means, the students and teacher construct the meaning’ (Luehmann & Frink, 2009, p. 277). The role of the teacher is critical in the successful use of any technology-enhanced learning experience and to realise the potential that technology offers, teachers need to adopt appropriate pedagogies and scaffold students’ learning as well as integrate technology into the curriculum (Kubieck, 2005). For example, students can be reluctant to comment on others’ work (Ellison & Wu, 2008). They can also struggle with the formality that assessment imposes on the more informal ‘non-academic’ mode of discourse of blogs and wikis (Farmer et al., 2008; Hemmi, Bayne & Land, 2009) and mandatory comments can lead to a lack of substantive feedback (Ellison & Wu, 2008). To create a responsive and expressive student audience, appropriate guidance in giving constructive feedback is needed (Kajder, 2007) along with appropriate assessment. In addition, technology allows access to a vast amount of scientific information which is often non-linear, fast-paced, rich and embedded in other contexts. Selecting, organising and integrating this type of information can produce high cognitive load which affects learning. As a result, strategies such as segmenting, looking for patterns in information and understanding different genres may also be required (Pace & Jones, 2009).